Description Logic Markup Language
DLML is not a language but rather a system of DTDs that allows to
encode many (if not all) description logics in the same framework.
So far, it is restricted to TBox encoding.
What is DLML?
One important motivation to build DTDs for description languages is to
be able to embed formal knowledge (in DL) in documents (see the pages
of the ESCRIRE
action for more information).
Other motivations include the experiment of simple representation language
transformations for which description logics
The goal of DLML is to encode description logics expressions into XML.
For instance, the sentence "All CSmaster students are bachelor
students whose advisor is computer scientist" is phrased in
description logics by the expression:
CSMasterStudents < (and Bachelor Student (all advisor ComputerScientist))
In this example, CSMasterStudent, Bachelor and Student are called
concepts and advisor is called a role. The sentence above is a concept
introduction for the concept CSMasterStudents. It is primitive because
introduced by the < symbol. This means that if all the CSmaster
students are bachelor students whose advisor is computer scientist,
the reverse is not supposed to hold. The symbols and and all are
called (concept) constructors and used for building complex concept
This expression will be straigthforwardly encoded in XML by just
marking all the elements described above:
This form of the terminology can be embedded into any kind of XML
document while preserving its structure. Moreover, it will be possible
to manipulate it as is shown below.
The DLML takes advantage of the modularity of description logics in
which each operator and introducer can be described independently and a
logic assemble these operators. The resources available here are thus:
- The encoding of many operators,
- The definition of logics, and
- The illustration of many transformations,
including some taking advantage of the semantics of the logic.
Sample XML files
- The very simple sample (FL-);
- The modern-team example of [Nebel 1990] (FLN);
- All these examples in one file (U).
Some developments are currently taking place:
- The full semantics description of the logics provided by DLML
(this can be used, for instance, in order to check that a particular
transformation is valid).
- A stylesheet for transfoming a logic specification (by providuing
its constructors and introducers) into complete DTD and DSD for that
Francesco Donini, Maurizio Lenzerini, Daniele Nardi, Andrea Schaerf,
Reasoning in description logics,
in: Gerd Brewka (ed.), Principles of knowledge representation, CSLI
lecture note ?, pp191-236, 1996.
Reasoning and revision in hybrid representation systems,
Lecture notes in computer science 422, 1990.
Peter Patel-Schneider, Bill Swartout (eds.),
Description logic knowledge representation system specification,
Jerome . Euzenat À inrialpes . fr
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